Velocity and density data in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic from 2017-05-02 to 2019-04-05 measured by Electro-Magnetic Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats deployed during R/V Walton Smith cruise WS17121

Three-Dimensional Gulf Circulation and Biogeochemical Processes Unveiled by State-of-the-Art Profiling Float Technology and Data Assimilative Ocean Models

DOI:
10.7266/n7-tad8-j468
 
UDI:
R5.x275.281:0001
Last Update:
Jan 22 2020 23:26 UTC
 
Dataset Author(s):
Shay, Lynn;Brewster, Jodi; Jaimes, Benjamin;Rudzin, Johna; Fennel, Katja; Gordon, Chris
Point of Contact:
Shay, Lynn K. (Nick)
University of Miami / Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
4600 Rickenbacker Causeway
Miami, Florida  33149
USA
nshay@rsmas.miami.edu
Funding Source:
RFP-V
Data Collection Period:
2017-05-02 to 2019-04-05

Identified Submitted In-Review Available
3 3 3 3

Suggested Citation:

Shay, Lynn;Brewster, Jodi; Jaimes, Benjamin;Rudzin, Johna; Fennel, Katja; Gordon, Chris. 2020. Velocity and density data in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic from 2017-05-02 to 2019-04-05 measured by Electro-Magnetic Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats deployed during R/V Walton Smith cruise WS17121. Distributed by: Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC), Harte Research Institute, Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi. doi:10.7266/n7-tad8-j468

Abstract:

This is a dataset of three-dimensional simultaneous direct measurements of both physical and biochemical properties and processes throughout the water column (from the sea surface to 1200 m, occasionally extending as deep as 2000 m), from Electro-Magnetic Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats deployed during R/V Walton Smith cruise WS17121. The targeted area of the ballasted float deployments lies between the DeSoto Canyon and the northern extent of the Loop Current in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The EM-APEX profiling float is equipped with CTD and electromagnetic current sensors and also measures the following biochemical properties: dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll fluorescence as proxy for phytoplankton abundance, backscatter as proxy of particle concentration (including marine particles and oil droplets), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence as proxy of CDOM (including fluorophoric oil components). Floats were deployed in May 2017 and transmitted data for nearly two years.

Purpose:

When crude oil is combined with seawater this complex mixture immediately begins to change. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unique in that the spill originated from the deep seafloor (~1500 m) and in the volume of oil released. Underwater plumes of oil were confirmed which were not visible at the surface. Such modification processes led to differing oil mixtures, possessing different characteristics. This is the rationale why subsurface physical and biochemical measurements are critical during a spill. Such measurements are needed to understand three-dimensional dispersion as well as deep mixing events via shear instability (e.g., Richardson numbers falling below critical values) and their impacts on the biochemistry at depths to 2000 m. The EM-APEX floats from Teledyne-Webb Research are used to measure current shear and vertical density gradients at the high vertical resolution, at the same vertical positions as the biogeochemical fields.

Theme Keywords:

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, CTD, Velocity, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorophyll, Backscatter, CDOM, three-dimensional in situ measurements, EM-APEX floats

File Format:

nc, mat, txt

Filename:

APEX-EM-final.tar.gz (75.72 MB)

Dataset Downloads:

1

Velocity and density data in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic from 2017-05-02 to 2019-04-05 measured by Electro-Magnetic Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats deployed during R/V Walton Smith cruise WS17121



Identification Information
Distribution Information
Metadata Maintenance Information

Metadata: 
  File identifier: 
      R5.x275.281-0001-metadata.xml
  Language: 
      eng; USA
  Character set: 
    Character set code: 
      utf8
  Hierarchy level: 
    Scope code: 
      dataset
  Metadata author: 
    Responsible party: 
      Individual name: 
          Johna Rudzin
      Organisation name: 
          University of Miami / Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
      Position name: 
          Researcher
      Contact info: 
        Contact: 
          Phone: 
            Telephone: 
              Voice: 
                  3054214746
              Facsimile: 
          Address: 
            Address: 
              Delivery point: 
                  4600 Rickenbacker Causeway
              City: 
                  Miami
              Administrative area: 
                  Florida
              Postal code: 
                  33149
              Country: 
                  USA
              Electronic mail address: 
                  jRudzin@rsmas.miami.edu
      Role: 
        Role code: 
          pointOfContact
  Date stamp: 
      2020-01-29T15:14:04+00:00
  Metadata standard name: 
      ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
  Metadata standard version: 
      ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
  Dataset URI: 
      https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org/metadata/R5.x275.281:0001
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Identification info: Data identification: Citation: Citation: Title: Velocity and density data in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic from 2017-05-02 to 2019-04-05 measured by Electro-Magnetic Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats deployed during R/V Walton Smith cruise WS17121 Alternate title: Date: Date: Date: 2020-01-29 Date type: Date type code: publication Identifier: Identifier: Code: Anchor: xlink: https://dx.doi.org/10.7266/n7-tad8-j468 title: DOI doi:10.7266/n7-tad8-j468 Abstract: This is a dataset of three-dimensional simultaneous direct measurements of both physical and biochemical properties and processes throughout the water column (from the sea surface to 1200 m, occasionally extending as deep as 2000 m), from Electro-Magnetic Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats deployed during R/V Walton Smith cruise WS17121. The targeted area of the ballasted float deployments lies between the DeSoto Canyon and the northern extent of the Loop Current in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The EM-APEX profiling float is equipped with CTD and electromagnetic current sensors and also measures the following biochemical properties: dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll fluorescence as proxy for phytoplankton abundance, backscatter as proxy of particle concentration (including marine particles and oil droplets), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence as proxy of CDOM (including fluorophoric oil components). Floats were deployed in May 2017 and transmitted data for nearly two years. Purpose: When crude oil is combined with seawater this complex mixture immediately begins to change. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unique in that the spill originated from the deep seafloor (~1500 m) and in the volume of oil released. Underwater plumes of oil were confirmed which were not visible at the surface. Such modification processes led to differing oil mixtures, possessing different characteristics. This is the rationale why subsurface physical and biochemical measurements are critical during a spill. Such measurements are needed to understand three-dimensional dispersion as well as deep mixing events via shear instability (e.g., Richardson numbers falling below critical values) and their impacts on the biochemistry at depths to 2000 m. The EM-APEX floats from Teledyne-Webb Research are used to measure current shear and vertical density gradients at the high vertical resolution, at the same vertical positions as the biogeochemical fields. Status: Progress code: completed Point of contact: Responsible party: Individual name: Lynn K. (Nick) Shay Organisation name: University of Miami / Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Position name: Professor Contact info: Contact: Phone: Telephone: Voice: 3054214075 Facsimile: Address: Address: Delivery point: 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway City: Miami Administrative area: Florida Postal code: 33149 Country: USA Electronic mail address: nshay@rsmas.miami.edu Role: Role code: principalInvestigator Descriptive keywords: Keywords: Keyword: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Keyword: CTD Keyword: Velocity Keyword: Dissolved Oxygen Keyword: Chlorophyll Keyword: Backscatter Keyword: CDOM Keyword: three-dimensional in situ measurements Keyword: EM-APEX floats Type: Keyword type code: theme Descriptive keywords: Keywords: Keyword: Gulf of Mexico Keyword: DeSoto Canyon Type: Keyword type code: place Resource constraints: title: Cite As Constraints: Use limitation: Shay, Lynn;Brewster, Jodi; Jaimes, Benjamin;Rudzin, Johna; Fennel, Katja; Gordon, Chris. 2020. Velocity and density data in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic from 2017-05-02 to 2019-04-05 measured by Electro-Magnetic Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats deployed during R/V Walton Smith cruise WS17121. Distributed by: Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC), Harte Research Institute, Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi. doi:10.7266/n7-tad8-j468 Resource constraints: title: CC0 License Legal constraints: Use constraints: Restriction code: licenceUnrestricted Other constraints: This information is released under the Creative Commons license - No Rights Reserved - CC0 1.0 Universal (https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/). The person who associated a work with this deed has dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law. You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission. Resource constraints: title: Liability and Warranty Legal constraints: Other constraints: All materials on this website are made available to GRIIDC and in turn to you "as-is." Content may only be submitted by an individual who represents and warrants that s/he has sufficient rights to be able to make the content available under a CC0 waiver. There is no warranty (expressed or implied) to these materials, their title, accuracy, non-infringement of third party rights, or fitness for any particular purpose, including the performance or results you may obtain from their use. Use these materials at your own risk. Under no circumstances shall GRIIDC be liable for any direct, incidental, special, consequential, indirect, or punitive damages that result from the use or the inability to use either this website or the materials available via this website. If you are dissatisfied with any website feature, content, or terms of use, your sole and exclusive remedy is to discontinue use. 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27.929367 -89.808933 27.955518 -89.809822 27.925337 -89.813793 27.927465 -89.842127 27.90849 -89.871815 27.899782 -89.905755 27.892263 -89.948962 27.868685 -90.011773 27.85411 -90.057793 27.845887 -90.076527 27.798383 -90.157663 27.769007 -90.197805 27.754038 -90.22557 27.725333 -90.288068 27.71237 -90.307652 27.692398 -90.332618 27.626467 -90.393757 27.287913 -90.367927 27.609593 -90.414235 27.583792 -90.452585 27.57116 -90.468005 27.558008 -90.478158 27.527418 -90.509848 27.501353 -90.541175 27.48696 -90.55007 27.471505 -90.563038 27.455907 -90.583545 26.96885 -90.62684 27.312707 -90.957242 Temporal element: Temporal extent: Extent: Time period: Description: ground condition Begin date: 2017-05-02 End date: 2019-04-05 Supplemental Information: QC profiles: Latitude [degrees], Longitude [degrees], pressure [dbar], date [YYYY-MM-DD], time (UTC, [HH:MM:SS]), temperature [degrees Celsius], Salinity [psu], flag_ctd (CTD quality flag, [0=good], U (eastward velocity 1, [m/s]), V (northward velocity 1, [m/s]), Verr (standard velocity error, 1 [m/s]), DOXY (dissolved O2, [umol/kg]), CHLA (chlorophyll concentration [mg/L]), CDOM (dissolved organic matter, [mg/L]), BBP700 (backscatter at 700nm, [1/m]).
          
The raw profiles also include ADCP data: Latitude [degrees], Longitude [degrees], pressure (CTD, [dbar]), pressure (ADCP, [dbar]), date [YYYY-MM-DD], time (UTC, [HH:MM:SS]), temperature [degrees Celsius], Salinity [psu], flag_ctd (CTD quality flag, [0=good], U1 (eastward velocity 1, [m/s]), V1 (northward velocity 1, [m/s]), Verr1 (standard velocity error 1, [m/s]), U2 (eastward velocity 2, [m/s]), V2 (northward velocity 2, [m/s]), Verr2 (standard velocity error 2, [m/s]), flag_vel (velocity quality flag, [0=good]), dP_dt (float ascension rate, [m/s]), RotP (Float rotation period, [s]), DOXY (dissolved O2, [umol/kg]), BBP700 (backscatter at 700nm, [1/m]), CDOM (dissolved organic matter, [mg/L]), CHLA (chlorophyll concentration [mg/L]), BSig (raw backscatter counts, [counts]), CSig (Raw CDOM counts, [counts]), FSig (raw fluorescence counts, [counts]).
          
In air measurements: DOXY (dissolved oxygen [umol/kg]), pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen [Pa]), Rphase (red phase, used to determine drift), TempDegC (optode measured temperature [degrees C]), Tphase (main input product), UXT (time in seconds since 1970-01-01).|This dataset is separated into "raw" data and "quality-controlled (QC)" data then by float number then. Raw data comes directly from the float. QC data has been visually inspected for spurious observations and interpolated from 0 db to 1200 db at 2 db intervals.
          
Specific QC measures for CTD: Pressure must be greater than 0 db, Temperatures must be greater than 0C, Salinity must be greater than 30 psu. The temperature and salinity thresholds were determined based on the location of deployment.
          
Specific QC measures for velocity: Pressure must be greater than 0 db, profiles must have RotP (rotation period of float) value that is less than EPNval/2, and velocity component values must be less than velocity component errors as determined by electrode pair #1. Both velocity components from electrode pair #1 and pair #2 are equal. QC velocity profiles are from electrode pair #1.
          
Specific QC measures for biogeochemical data: Oxygen is converted from phase difference to concentration in micromole per kg following the procedure in the Argo oxygen processing cookbook case 9.2.29 (https://doi.org/10.13155/39795). The oxygen concentrations have NOT been corrected for pre-deployment drift using in-air measurements as described in Johnson et al., 2015, but in-air measurements were recorded. Low salinity values (< 25 psu) were removed as they cause anomalously high concentrations near the surface.
          
Conversion for bbp, cdom, and chla were all performed using manufacturer-provided slope and dark counts. It should be noted that the slope for chla is known to often overestimate the pigment concentration, and bgc-Argo standard processing will divide the slope by a factor of 2; however, this is not done in this case and is left up to the user.|The EM-APEX profiling float is equipped with CTD and electromagnetic current sensors as well as the following chemical and bio-optical sensors: 1) the Aanderra Optode 4330F sensor for dissolved oxygen (DO), and 2) the WETlabs ECOpuck FLbb-CD, which combines measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence as proxy for phytoplankton abundance, backscatter as proxy of particle concentration (including marine particles and oil droplets), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence as proxy of CDOM (including fluorophoric oil components).|||Johnson, K. S., Plant, J. N., Riser, S. C., & Gilbert, D. (2015). Air Oxygen Calibration of Oxygen Optodes on a Profiling Float Array. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 32(11), 2160–2172. http://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0101.1
          
Thierry Virginie, Bittig Henry, Gilbert Denis, Kobayashi Taiyo, Kanako Sato, Schmid Claudia (2018). Processing Argo oxygen data at the DAC level. https://doi.org/10.13155/39795
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Distribution info: Distribution: Distributor: Distributor: Distributor contact: Responsible party: Organisation name: Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) Contact info: Contact: Phone: Telephone: Voice: 3618253604 Address: Address: Delivery point: 6300 Ocean Drive City: Corpus Christi Administrative area: TX Postal code: 78412 Country: USA Electronic mail address: griidc@gomri.org Online Resource: Online Resource: Linkage: URL: https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org Role: Role code: distributor Distributor format: Format: Name: nc, mat, txt Version: inapplicable File decompression technique: tar.gz Distributor transfer options: Digital transfer options: Transfer size: 75.7185 Online: Online Resource: Linkage: URL: https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org/data/R5.x275.281:0001 Protocol: https Name: Data Landing Page Description: GRIIDC dataset landing page Function: Online function code: information
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Metadata maintenance: Maintenance information: Maintenance and update frequency: unknown Maintenance note: This ISO metadata record was automatically generated from information provided to GRIIDC for dataset: R5.x275.281:0001 on 2020-10-27T07:03:38-05:00
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