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Aerially observed Sea Surface Temperature data during the Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) from 2016-01-20 to 2016-01-30

Consortium for Advanced Research on Transport of Hydrocarbon in the Environment II (CARTHE II)

DOI:
10.7266/N7280608
 
UDI:
R4.x265.237:0006
Last Update:
Jul 05 2018 16:03 UTC
 
Dataset Author(s):
Molemaker, Jeroen; Berta, Maristella
Point of Contact:
Molemaker, Jeroen
University of California Los Angeles / Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
Box 957228
Los Angeles, California  90095
USA
nmolem@atmos.ucla.edu
Funding Source:
RFP-IV
Data Collection Period:
2016-01-20 to 2016-01-30

Identified Submitted Review Available
3 3 3 3

Suggested Citation:

Molemaker, Jeroen; Berta, Maristella (2016) Aerially observed Sea Surface Temperature data during the Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) from 2016-01-20 to 2016-01-30. Distributed by: Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC), Harte Research Institute, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. doi:10.7266/N7280608

Abstract:

A Parthanavia P86 dual engine aircraft based in Gulf Shores, Alabama carried a FLIR A655sc long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera used to make maps of sea surface temperature (SST). The dataset consists of composite maps of SST from individual images georectified on a common grid with a resolution of 10m. Typically, there are between 1 and 4 SST maps per 24-hour, ranging in domain size from 5 km x 5 km to 50 km x 50 km. The LWIR camera uses an uncooled microbolometer technology and it is sensitive in the range 7.5-14 micrometers. Since the camera is uncooled, a Heitronics KT19II radiometer was used to correct for drift. Under ideal conditions, this combination can achieve an accuracy of 0.05 degrees C. Using a lens with a 10 mm focal length, the field of view is 33 x 45 degrees and the sensor grid 640 x 480. At a typical flight height of 3000 m, the thermal images cover an area of approximately 3000 m by 2250 m. Using a 640 x 480 sensor array, the camera had a spatial resolution of 5 m. The images were directly georectified using the position and altitude data from an onboard Applanix POS AV310. The POSAV 310, when post-processed using RTX data provides position data with an accuracy of approximately 5 cm, altitude data with an accuracy of 0.15 degrees for roll and pitch, and 0.3 degrees for heading. This allows to georectify each pixel in the thermal images with a maximum horizontal error of a few meters. The aircraft was flown in a 'lawnmower' pattern, obtaining 2 thermal images every second. All rectified thermal images were combined in a larger mosaic that typically spanned an area of approximately 50 x 50 km. It takes about 4 hours of flight time to complete a survey of such an area. Due to the considerable overlap of the thermal images, it was possible to average about 100 observations for each 5 x 5 m bin of the resulting mosaic. Each individual image of the LWIR camera is characterized by approximately 0.07 degrees C noise; the averaging reduces the noise by one order of magnitude. Since the atmosphere is not fully transparent for radiation in the LWIR range, false SST gradients may appear due to atmospheric effects which depend on the humidity and temperature profile of the atmosphere. An attempt has been made to remove these effects by analyzing apparent temperature dependencies as a function of radiation path lengths through the atmosphere. It is important to note that the LWIR camera observes the radiative skin temperature of the sea surface. The differences between the skin temperature and the bulk temperature as measured in-situ by a vessel may be as large as 1 degree. However, the SST patterns provide a unique synoptic context for ship-based measurements and drifter motion that, as of this moment, can't be duplicated by any other means. This dataset supports the publication: Carlson, D.F., Ozgokmen, T., Novelli, G., Guigand, C., Chang, H., Fox-Kemper, B., Mensa, J., Mehta, S., Fredj, E., Huntley, H. and Kirwan Jr, A.D. (2018). Surface Ocean Dispersion Observations From the Ship-Tethered Aerostat Remote Sensing System. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5. doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00479

Purpose:

To create synoptic maps of observed sea surface temperature for context of the LASER observations.

Theme Keywords:

sea surface temperature, aerial observations, remote sensing, long-wave IR, LASER, SST

File Format:

mat, png, txt

Filename:

LASER_SST.tar.gz (10.03 GB)

Dataset Downloads:

1

Aerially observed Sea Surface Temperature data during the Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) from 2016-01-20 to 2016-01-30



Identification Information
Distribution Information
Metadata Maintenance Information

Metadata: 
  File identifier: 
      R4.x265.237-0006-metadata.xml
  Language: 
      eng; USA
  Character set: 
    Character set code: 
      utf8
  Hierarchy level: 
    Scope code: 
      dataset
  Metadata author: 
    Responsible party: 
      Individual name: 
          Helga S. Huntley
      Organisation name: 
          University of Delaware / School of Marine Science and Policy
      Position name: 
          Research Assistant Professor
      Contact info: 
        Contact: 
          Phone: 
            Telephone: 
              Voice: 
                  3028311175
              Facsimile: 
          Address: 
            Address: 
              Delivery point: 
                  College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment
                  306 Robinson Hall
              City: 
                  Newark
              Administrative area: 
                  Delaware
              Postal code: 
                  19716
              Country: 
                  USA
              Electronic mail address: 
                  helgah@udel.edu
      Role: 
        Role code: 
          pointOfContact
  Date stamp: 
      2019-04-11T20:00:40+00:00
  Metadata standard name: 
      ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
  Metadata standard version: 
      ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
  Dataset URI: 
      https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org/metadata/R4.x265.237:0006
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Identification info: Data identification: Citation: Citation: Title: Aerially observed Sea Surface Temperature data during the Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) from 2016-01-20 to 2016-01-30 Alternate title: Aerial SST maps for LASER Date: Date: Date: 2016-02-15 Date type: Date type code: creation Abstract: A Parthanavia P86 dual engine aircraft based in Gulf Shores, Alabama carried a FLIR A655sc long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera used to make maps of sea surface temperature (SST). The dataset consists of composite maps of SST from individual images georectified on a common grid with a resolution of 10m. Typically, there are between 1 and 4 SST maps per 24-hour, ranging in domain size from 5 km x 5 km to 50 km x 50 km. The LWIR camera uses an uncooled microbolometer technology and it is sensitive in the range 7.5-14 micrometers. Since the camera is uncooled, a Heitronics KT19II radiometer was used to correct for drift. Under ideal conditions, this combination can achieve an accuracy of 0.05 degrees C. Using a lens with a 10 mm focal length, the field of view is 33 x 45 degrees and the sensor grid 640 x 480. At a typical flight height of 3000 m, the thermal images cover an area of approximately 3000 m by 2250 m. Using a 640 x 480 sensor array, the camera had a spatial resolution of 5 m. The images were directly georectified using the position and altitude data from an onboard Applanix POS AV310. The POSAV 310, when post-processed using RTX data provides position data with an accuracy of approximately 5 cm, altitude data with an accuracy of 0.15 degrees for roll and pitch, and 0.3 degrees for heading. This allows to georectify each pixel in the thermal images with a maximum horizontal error of a few meters. The aircraft was flown in a 'lawnmower' pattern, obtaining 2 thermal images every second. All rectified thermal images were combined in a larger mosaic that typically spanned an area of approximately 50 x 50 km. It takes about 4 hours of flight time to complete a survey of such an area. Due to the considerable overlap of the thermal images, it was possible to average about 100 observations for each 5 x 5 m bin of the resulting mosaic. Each individual image of the LWIR camera is characterized by approximately 0.07 degrees C noise; the averaging reduces the noise by one order of magnitude. Since the atmosphere is not fully transparent for radiation in the LWIR range, false SST gradients may appear due to atmospheric effects which depend on the humidity and temperature profile of the atmosphere. An attempt has been made to remove these effects by analyzing apparent temperature dependencies as a function of radiation path lengths through the atmosphere. It is important to note that the LWIR camera observes the radiative skin temperature of the sea surface. The differences between the skin temperature and the bulk temperature as measured in-situ by a vessel may be as large as 1 degree. However, the SST patterns provide a unique synoptic context for ship-based measurements and drifter motion that, as of this moment, can't be duplicated by any other means. This dataset supports the publication: Carlson, D.F., Ozgokmen, T., Novelli, G., Guigand, C., Chang, H., Fox-Kemper, B., Mensa, J., Mehta, S., Fredj, E., Huntley, H. and Kirwan Jr, A.D. (2018). Surface Ocean Dispersion Observations From the Ship-Tethered Aerostat Remote Sensing System. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5. doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00479 Purpose: To create synoptic maps of observed sea surface temperature for context of the LASER observations. Status: Progress code: completed Point of contact: Responsible party: Individual name: Jeroen Molemaker Organisation name: University of California Los Angeles / Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Position name: Associate Researcher Contact info: Contact: Phone: Telephone: Voice: 3012069381 Facsimile: Address: Address: Delivery point: Box 957228 City: Los Angeles Administrative area: California Postal code: 90095 Country: USA Electronic mail address: nmolem@atmos.ucla.edu Role: Role code: pointOfContact Point of contact: Responsible party: Individual name: Maristella Berta Organisation name: Consiglio Nazionale delle Riceche / ISMAR Istituto di Scienze Marine/Arsenale Position name: Postdoctoral Researcher Contact info: Contact: Phone: Telephone: Voice: 0187178891 Facsimile: Address: Address: Delivery point: Tesa 104 Castello 2737/F City: Venezia Administrative area: Veneto Postal code: 30122 Country: ITA Electronic mail address: maristella.berta@sp.ismar.cnr.it Role: Role code: pointOfContact Descriptive keywords: Keywords: Keyword: sea surface temperature Keyword: aerial observations Keyword: remote sensing Keyword: long-wave IR Keyword: LASER Keyword: SST Type: Keyword type code: theme Descriptive keywords: Keywords: Keyword: Gulf of Mexico Keyword: DeSoto Canyon Type: Keyword type code: place Language: eng; USA Topic category: Topic category code: oceans Extent: Extent: Geographic element: Geographic bounding box: West bound longitude: -88.91891 East bound longitude: -87.95095 South bound latitude: 28.01633 North bound latitude: 29.88299 Geographic element: BoundingPolygon: Polygon: Polygon: Outer boundary: Linear ring: gml:posList: 28.89504 -88.23505 28.89725 -87.98463 28.73087 -87.98261 28.68374 -87.96665 28.6709 -87.97665 28.65091 -87.98093 28.65128 -88.07672 28.64948 -88.14939 28.62806 -88.06516 28.63378 -88.04803 28.62235 -88.04089 28.60379 -87.95095 28.52384 -87.96951 28.52099 -87.96237 28.50243 -87.95666 28.49243 -87.96237 28.48387 -87.97807 28.28399 -88.03803 28.28828 -88.07658 28.28828 -88.08943 28.28542 -88.10085 28.28971 -88.14511 28.25116 -88.15368 28.22867 -88.15118 28.21892 -88.14221 28.21333 -88.14739 28.17229 -88.14624 28.16835 -88.17224 28.12383 -88.18384 28.12874 -88.26196 28.04246 -88.37409 28.07178 -88.40455 28.01809 -88.4037 28.01633 -88.5664 28.2398 -88.57029 28.24801 -88.5733 28.25774 -88.57058 28.5036 -88.57354 28.50384 -88.50514 28.60148 -88.47726 28.61815 -88.48162 28.63789 -88.54827 28.50422 -88.61669 28.47816 -88.66621 28.50386 -88.73474 28.51956 -88.77614 28.54954 -88.8047 28.56096 -88.8204 28.58238 -88.88322 28.62378 -88.91891 29.13632 -88.65479 29.10063 -88.57199 29.21341 -88.57056 29.21627 -88.65765 29.21341 -88.73902 29.29193 -88.74474 29.29051 -88.65479 29.30336 -88.57199 29.40758 -88.57627 29.41614 -88.55057 29.34048 -88.53915 29.34048 -88.51488 29.30193 -88.3821 29.77877 -88.43921 29.78305 -88.39924 29.78305 -88.37068 29.8416 -88.37237 29.87585 -88.37354 29.88299 -88.35355 29.86444 -88.3619 29.85016 -88.35641 29.79162 -88.34927 29.79019 -88.34498 28.89504 -88.23505 Temporal element: Temporal extent: Extent: Time period: Description: ground condition Begin date: 2016-01-20 End date: 2016-01-30 Supplemental Information: Each .mat file is labeled with the date when the data was obtained. It contains the following variables: x2 and y2 (grid of local orthogonal metric coordinates, km), lon (gridded longitude, degrees East), lat (gridded latitude, degrees North), SST (sea surface temperatures, degrees C), UTC_gps (time, UTC), tim_gps (GPS epoch time of plane track, seconds since 1/1/1970), lon_gps (longitude of plane track, degrees East), lat_gps (latitude of plane track, degrees North), rol_gps (roll angle of plane track, degrees), yaw_gps (heading of plane track, degrees from North), pit_gps (roll of plane track, degrees).
          
For illustrative purposes, the data files are accompanied by image files, which show the corresponding SST fields. When included, the flight track is shown as a black curve, with the starting position marked by a star. The title provides the time window over which the data was collected.|||||
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Distribution info: Distribution: Distributor: Distributor: Distributor contact: Responsible party: Organisation name: Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) Contact info: Contact: Phone: Telephone: Voice: 3618253604 Address: Address: Delivery point: 6300 Ocean Drive City: Corpus Christi Administrative area: TX Postal code: 78412 Country: USA Electronic mail address: griidc@gomri.org Online Resource: Online Resource: Linkage: URL: https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org Role: Role code: distributor Distributor format: Format: Name: mat, png, txt Version: inapplicable File decompression technique: tar.gz Distributor transfer options: Digital transfer options: Transfer size: 10031.8001 Online: Online Resource: Linkage: URL: https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org/data/R4.x265.237:0006 Protocol: https Name: Data Landing Page Description: GRIIDC dataset landing page Function: Online function code: information
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Metadata maintenance: Maintenance information: Maintenance and update frequency: unknown Maintenance note: This ISO metadata record was automatically generated from information provided to GRIIDC for dataset: R4.x265.237:0006 on 2019-06-17T01:13:25+00:00
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