PAH Analysis: Bile PAH metabolite concentrations in longline captured fish, Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2011

Center for Integrated Modeling and Analysis of Gulf Ecosystems (C-IMAGE)

DOI:
10.7266/N7PG1PRZ
 
UDI:
R1.x135.121:0010
Last Update:
May 17 2016 21:03 UTC
 
Dataset Author(s):
Murawski, Steven
Point of Contact:
Murawski, Steven A
University of South Florida / College of Marine Science
140 7th Ave South
St. Petersburg, Florida  33701
USA
smurawski@usf.edu
Funding Source:
RFP-I
Data Collection Period:
2011-08-13 to 2011-08-17

Identified Submitted In-Review Available
3 3 3 3

Suggested Citation:

Murawski, Steven. 2016. PAH Analysis: Bile PAH metabolite concentrations in longline captured fish, Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2011. Distributed by: Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC), Harte Research Institute, Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi. doi:10.7266/N7PG1PRZ

Abstract:

The data contained in this spreadsheet represent bile PAH metabilote determinations from selected species collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) during longline sampling. The data were analyzed at the Nortwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), using methods described in “Murawski et al. 2014. Prevalence of skin lesions and PAH concentrations in Gulf of Mexico Fishes, Post-Deepwater Horizon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (DOI:10.1080/00028487.2014.911205)”.

Purpose:

These data were collected to document PAH metabolite concentrations of 3 major PAHs collected post Deepwater Horizon. Data are presented for three PAH metabolite classes: napthalene, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene.

Theme Keywords:

DWH contamination, Fishes, PAH, Bile

File Format:

xls

Filename:

Murawski_2011_Bile_Data_Combined.xls (30.72 KB)

Dataset Downloads:

22

PAH Analysis: Bile PAH metabolite concentrations in longline captured fish, Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2011



Identification Information
Distribution Information
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Metadata: 
  File identifier: 
      R1.x135.121-0010-metadata.xml
  Language: 
      eng; USA
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      utf8
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      Individual name: 
          Richard McKenzie
      Organisation name: 
          University of South Florida / USF Library System
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          GIS Analyst
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                  Tampa
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                  Florida
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                  USA
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                  rwmcken2@usf.edu
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  Date stamp: 
      2021-05-04T20:04:57+00:00
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      ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
  Metadata standard version: 
      ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
  Dataset URI: 
      https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org/metadata/R1.x135.121:0010
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Identification info: Data identification: Citation: Citation: Title: PAH Analysis: Bile PAH metabolite concentrations in longline captured fish, Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2011 Alternate title: 2011 Bile PAH Date: Date: Date: 2016-05-25 Date type: Date type code: publication Identifier: Identifier: Code: Anchor: xlink: https://dx.doi.org/10.7266/N7PG1PRZ title: DOI doi:10.7266/N7PG1PRZ Abstract: The data contained in this spreadsheet represent bile PAH metabilote determinations from selected species collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) during longline sampling. The data were analyzed at the Nortwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), using methods described in “Murawski et al. 2014. Prevalence of skin lesions and PAH concentrations in Gulf of Mexico Fishes, Post-Deepwater Horizon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (DOI:10.1080/00028487.2014.911205)”. Purpose: These data were collected to document PAH metabolite concentrations of 3 major PAHs collected post Deepwater Horizon. Data are presented for three PAH metabolite classes: napthalene, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Status: Progress code: completed Point of contact: Responsible party: Individual name: Steven A Murawski Organisation name: University of South Florida / College of Marine Science Position name: Professor Contact info: Contact: Phone: Telephone: Voice: 7275533367 Facsimile: Address: Address: Delivery point: 140 7th Ave South City: St. Petersburg Administrative area: Florida Postal code: 33701 Country: USA Electronic mail address: smurawski@usf.edu Role: Role code: pointOfContact Descriptive keywords: Keywords: Keyword: DWH contamination Keyword: Fishes Keyword: PAH Keyword: Bile Type: Keyword type code: theme Descriptive keywords: Keywords: Keyword: Gulf of Mexico Type: Keyword type code: place Resource constraints: title: Cite As Constraints: Use limitation: Murawski, Steven. 2016. PAH Analysis: Bile PAH metabolite concentrations in longline captured fish, Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2011. Distributed by: Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC), Harte Research Institute, Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi. doi:10.7266/N7PG1PRZ Resource constraints: title: CC0 License Legal constraints: Use constraints: Restriction code: licenceUnrestricted Other constraints: This information is released under the Creative Commons license - No Rights Reserved - CC0 1.0 Universal (https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/). The person who associated a work with this deed has dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law. You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission. Resource constraints: title: Liability and Warranty Legal constraints: Other constraints: All materials on this website are made available to GRIIDC and in turn to you "as-is." Content may only be submitted by an individual who represents and warrants that s/he has sufficient rights to be able to make the content available under a CC0 waiver. There is no warranty (expressed or implied) to these materials, their title, accuracy, non-infringement of third party rights, or fitness for any particular purpose, including the performance or results you may obtain from their use. Use these materials at your own risk. Under no circumstances shall GRIIDC be liable for any direct, incidental, special, consequential, indirect, or punitive damages that result from the use or the inability to use either this website or the materials available via this website. If you are dissatisfied with any website feature, content, or terms of use, your sole and exclusive remedy is to discontinue use. Aggregation Info: AggregateInformation: Aggregate Data Set Name: title: Related Publication Citation Citation: Title: Pulster, E. L., Gracia, A., Snyder, S. M., Deak, K., Fogelson, S., & Murawski, S. A. (2019). Chronic Sub-lethal Effects Observed in Wild-Caught Fishes Following Two Major Oil Spills in the Gulf of Mexico: Deepwater Horizon and Ixtoc 1. Deep Oil Spills, 388–413. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-11605-7_24 Date: inapplicable Aggregate Data Set Identifier: title: Related Publication DOI Identifier: Code: Anchor: xlink: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11605-7_24 title: DOI doi:10.1007/978-3-030-11605-7_24 Association Type: Association type code: crossReference Language: eng; USA Topic category: Topic category code: biota Topic category: Topic category code: oceans Extent: Extent: Geographic element: Geographic bounding box: West bound longitude: -90.6736 East bound longitude: -88.5522 South bound latitude: 28.0236 North bound latitude: 29.4525 Geographic element: BoundingPolygon: Polygon: gml:MultiPoint: gml:pointMember: Point: gml:pos: 29.4525 -88.6525 gml:pointMember: Point: gml:pos: 29.2355 -88.5522 gml:pointMember: Point: gml:pos: 29.0373 -88.7373 gml:pointMember: Point: gml:pos: 29.1093 -88.876 gml:pointMember: Point: gml:pos: 28.8512 -89.4845 gml:pointMember: Point: gml:pos: 28.8241 -89.5074 gml:pointMember: Point: gml:pos: 28.0236 -90.6736 gml:pointMember: Point: gml:pos: 28.4734 -90.5568 gml:pointMember: Point: gml:pos: 28.2178 -90.5845 Temporal element: Temporal extent: Extent: Time period: Description: ground condition Begin date: 2011-08-13 End date: 2011-08-17 Supplemental Information: FIELD NUMBER, SITE, SPECIES [cobia, red snapper, greater amberjack, conger eel, yellowedge grouper], Volume of bile injected (µL), Naphthalene Equivalents (ng/g bile, wet wt.), Phenanthrene Equivalents (ng/g bile, wet wt.), Benzo[a]pyrene Equivalents (ng/g bile, wet wt.), Nap and Phen combined. The following is a list of sample sites and their location (Sample Site Name, Latitude, Longitude): PISCES 10-20, 29.4525, -88.6525; PISCES 10-40, 29.2355, -88.5522; PISCES 11-100, 29.0373, -88.7373; PISCES 11-40, 29.1093, -88.8760; PISCES 12-20, 28.8512, -89.4845; PISCES 12-40, 28.8241, -89.5074; PISCES 13-100, 28.0236, -90.6736; PISCES 13-20, 28.4734, -90.5568; PISCES 13-40, 28.2178, -90.5845 |Frozen bile samples collected from five species sampled in 2011 were shipped to the Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) in Seattle, WA and were stored at -20°C until analysis. Thirty-four individual fish bile samples from 2011 (several species) and 15 samples from 2012 (red snapper) were analyzed for metabolites of PAHs using a high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence (HPLC-F) method (Krahn et al. 1984; Krahn et al. 2005). This method results in the determination of the concentrations of classes of PAH metabolites fluorescing in the regions typified by NPH, PHN and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Bile was injected directly onto a Waters © high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence system equipped with a C-18 reverse-phase column (Phenomenex Synergi Hydro©). The PAH metabolites were eluted with a linear gradient from 100% water (containing a trace amount of acetic acid) to 100% methanol at a flow of 1.0 mL/min. Chromatograms were recorded at the following wavelength pairs: (1) 292/335 nm where many 2-3 benzene ring aromatic compounds (e.g., NPH) fluoresce, (2) 260/380 nm where several 3-4 ring compounds (e.g., PHN) fluoresce and (3) 380/430 nm where 4-5 ring compounds (e.g., BaP) fluoresce. Peaks eluting after nine minutes were integrated and the areas of these peaks were summed. The concentrations of fluorescent PAHs in the bile samples of the marine fish were determined using NPH, PHN, BaP as external standards and converting the fluorescence response of bile to PHN (ng PHN equivalents g-1 bile), NHP (ng NPH equivalents g-1 bile) or BaP (ng BaP equivalents g-1 bile) equivalents. To ensure that the HPLC/fluorescence system was operating properly, a NPH/PHN/BaP calibration standard was analyzed five times to obtain a relative standard deviation < 15% for each PAH. As part of the laboratory quality assurance (QA) plan, two QA samples, consisting of a method blank and a fish bile control sample (bile of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, exposed to 25 µg/mL of Monterey crude oil for 48 hours), were analyzed with the fish bile samples. Three methods blanks revealed no traces of PAH metabolites, and the calibration standard was reproduced within the standard deviation of the source compound. Sampling in 2011 occurred from July-August, using three chartered commercial longline fishing vessels. The depth distribution of sampling was 15-195 m along 15 transects from nearshore to offshore. The maximum depth of the survey coincided with the maximum depth distribution of red snapper, the species most often reported with skin lesions. For selected specimens we determined PAH levels in muscle and liver tissues and PAH metabolites in bile using standard methods. Sampling stations were located at nominal depths of 18, 37, 73, 110, 146 and 183 m along 15 transects extending from north of the Dry Tortugas Islands, to offshore from Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana. Some additional stations were located between transects, and for some transects with steep bathymetric slopes, we reduced the number of stations fished. The longitudinal scope of the study was set to encompass the majority of the area where surface oil concentrations during the DWH event were greatest, and also to include the West Florida Shelf region that had no observed surface oiling from the spill although we cannot rule out upwelling of dissolved DWH hydrocarbons there) to compare with the heavily-impacted NGM. At each pre-determined sampling location, the vessel captain searched for suitable habitat for target species including primarily snappers and groupers. This involved using the ship’s fish finder to locate “hard bottom” habitat typically also showing concentrations of demersal fishes. The vessel was allowed to range up to nine km from the center line of the sampling transect in search of suitable habitat. At each station, eight km of 3.2 mm galvanized steel main line was deployed, with 322-500 baited hooks. We used 91 kg test leaders, 3.7 m long attached to #13 circle hooks, with alternating cut fish and squid as bait. At the beginning and end of the main line we deployed Star:Oddi© CDST Centi temperature/time/depth recorders to record actual bottom time, as well as bottom temperature and depth fished. The recording interval of these instruments was 5 min. At set-out and haul-back we recorded latitude and longitude, time, depth from the vessel’s depth finder, the unique numbers of the TD instruments deployed at either end of the string, and local weather conditions. Once the longline was deployed, usually the vessel steamed back to the start buoy and began haul-back. The average soak time was 2 hours 1 minute. Large sharks (e.g., ~2 m and greater) were photographed for species identification at the rail and released alive. Each fish obtained was inspected for a variety of externally-symptomatic diseases and other samples obtained. Average fish catch in 2011 was 47 per haul (range 4-240), the dominant species were red snapper, red grouper, Gulf smoothhound, and Atlantic sharpnose shark, which in aggregate accounted for about 2/3 of the total catch. In 2012 we added an additional survey transect at the Mississippi Valley, transect 16 west of the Mississippi River Delta and one west of the previous limits of our survey (transect 17). Catches in 2012 consisted primarily king snake eel, Atlantic sharpnose shark, red snapper, Gulf smoothhound, and tilefish, also comprising about 2/3 of the catch. Our catches of large pelagic species were augmented by trolling surface lures while transiting between longline stations. Troll-caught specimens were processed using methods similar to longline catches. Each fish was examined for the following: (1) presence of external skin lesions (e.g., ulcers, or other external eruptions of the integument or skin irritation unrelated to mechanical damage, (2) the presence of fin rot disease, (3) gills examined for the presence of parasites (data not reported here) and tumors, (4) body inspected for evidence of recent mechanical damage, thought to occur through trauma of the catching process or due to predators, and (4) inspection of the skin and internal organs for the presence of obvious tumors and tumor-like growths. Photographs were taken of skin lesions and other pathologies and the status of each lesion was evaluated (e.g., open bloody ulcer, closed skin contusions, healing or old injury). To obtain bile samples we dissected and punctured the gall bladder into a clear 15x45 mm vial. A foil liner was inserted between the cap and vial to prevent hydrocarbon contamination. The vial was wrapped in foil to prevent photo oxidation, and placed in a plastic bag. Bile samples were kept on ice or frozen at sea until return to the laboratory where they were maintained. Data for skin lesions for these samples can be found in dataset R1.x135.120:0002. Methods blanks and standard exposure material (Atlantic salmon tissue) were routinely done for these samples (see published paper for methods) and results are reported in the spreadsheet. Methods described in: Krahn, M.M., M.S. Myers, D.G. Burrows, and D.C Malins. 1984. Determination of xenobiotics in bile of fish from polluted waterways. Xenobiotica 14: 633-646. Krahn, M.M., G.M. Ylitalo, J. Buzitis, J.L. Bolton, C.A. Wigren, S.-L. Chan, and U. Varanasi. 1993. Analyses of petroleum-related contaminants in marine fish and sediments following the Gulf oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin 27: 285-292. Krahn, M.M., G.M. Ylitalo, and T.K. Collier. 2005. Analysis of bile of fish collected in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico potentially affected by Hurricane Katrina to determine recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). M.S. NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington.||||
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Distribution info: Distribution: Distributor: Distributor: Distributor contact: Responsible party: Organisation name: Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) Contact info: Contact: Phone: Telephone: Voice: 3618253604 Address: Address: Delivery point: 6300 Ocean Drive City: Corpus Christi Administrative area: TX Postal code: 78412 Country: USA Electronic mail address: griidc@gomri.org Online Resource: Online Resource: Linkage: URL: https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org Role: Role code: distributor Distributor format: Format: Name: xls Version: inapplicable File decompression technique: Distributor transfer options: Digital transfer options: Transfer size: 0.0307 Online: Online Resource: Linkage: URL: https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org/data/R1.x135.121:0010 Protocol: https Name: Data Landing Page Description: GRIIDC dataset landing page Function: Online function code: information
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Metadata maintenance: Maintenance information: Maintenance and update frequency: unknown Maintenance note: This ISO metadata record was automatically generated from information provided to GRIIDC for dataset: R1.x135.121:0010 on 2021-09-23T19:07:56-05:00
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